Ever since the Edo period, sales records had been recorded in black ink in daifukucho-style kanjocho (Japanese-style ledgers). Starting in the Meiji period, national banks, trading companies, and other businesses moved to Western-style bookkeeping.
At Gekkeikan, we used daifukucho-style kanjocho until 1897. However, the 11th head, Tsunekichi Okura, had also started using keeping accounts using Western-style ledgers in parallel starting back in 1894.
We started using proper Western-style bookkeeping, where profit and loss accounts and balance accounts are done in parallel, from the 1896 fiscal year. The leather-bound ledgers were procured from a local printing company. In the 1900 fiscal year we started amortizing costs. At the time, there were very few companies that started using Western-style bookkeeping, even in our own industry.
By using Western-style bookkeeping, we can clearly see the various expenses and profits associated with costs, production, sales, and other areas, allowing us to keep a lid on expenses and manage our budget, and carry out accurate settlement of accounts. This has been one of the factors contributing to our rapid growth from the Meiji period onwards.